Archaeology Of Russia


In the Komi branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences developed a method of finding peatlands, containing artefacts and structures from plant materials [1 ; 2 ] . The essence of wow boils down to a massive archaeological study of peatlands, river oxbow lakes, which are often included in areas of widespread settlements on outcrops and headlands terraces. These Moors are now often buried under alluvium deposits, come from a small mire, and the latter river from the oxbows. Items made from plant materials, is inevitably involved in such swamps, or ponds, are preserved by the preservative properties of peat and sapropel. Finding oxbow peat bogs facilitated by the fact that they correspond to the arcuate concave edge of the floodplain terraces developed at the time the river bends. Many peatlands is penetrated by a channel and subject to examination, even if not included in the line of an ancient settlement: they can discover the ancient fishing fence, the remains of which in the form of sticks with a slice or shingle very plentiful.

The above considerations were confirmed by the discovery in the basin of the Northern Dvina six oxbow peat bogs to ancient structures and things. The first one is Located near the lake (the basin of the Vychegda), in the area of dolgovremennoi Vis I. Peat bog discovered in 1960 under a layer of clayey lake sediments. Here in gipsowo-sedge peat and sapropel krupoderova (other investigated peat bogs also consist of peat and sapropel) at a depth of 0, 8— 3, 0 m discovered more than 200 ancient wooden products and items with traces of treatment, as well as clothes from bark and grass.

After two years in the precincts of a neighbouring long-term settlements of Vis II was identified II Vissi peat originating from oxbow-meander R. Singi, with later wooden products (they found more than 330) and the remains of fishing structures from poles. Cultural remains are deposited primarily at the same depths as in the first case, but the growth of peatlands continues at the present time [3 ] .

In 1966 fishing structure they found on the river South, in the vicinity Marasinskaya (Markilinski) Parking lot early bronze age, was investigated in 1937 by M. E . FOSS. There were also two different times of the peat bog, many of which are found buildings: the first is a shingle in the second — from poles. Peatlands are owned by the oxbow-meander, left sleeve R. South, and buried under alluvial layer, reaching a capacity of 4 m. Finally, in 1967, the remains of fishing structures made of poles was opened in the oxbow sediments of Pengisi (a tributary of the Northern Dvina river, downstream), at the depth of 2, 1-2, 5 m, under a powerful layer of alluvium. Obtained during the exploration and excavation of the material is extremely interesting. For Dating these finds is not always possible to apply archaeological methods. From five peatland, only one (Wisci II) contains well-dated things — glass beads, and ceramics.

Much harder on archaeological materials to determine the age of the I Viskovo peatlands, although stratigraphic data it is obvious that he is much older than II, which cuts through the thickness of the sediments overlying the peat I Viski (Fig. 1. a). In peat years of pottery, flint has nekroliticescoe appearance, combined with the polished axes; the nature of the ornamentation of wood products synchronized with polished stone axes from the cultural layer in the soil floodplain terraces; some things made of plant materials have their Parallels in the finds of Mesolithic time [3 ] . However, to prove the age of the Mesolithic wooden artefacts from the bogs Viskovo I was only applying the methods of natural Sciences.

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