CENTRAL SCIENTIFIC LIBRARY

Gothic art

It is difficult to find the right words to describe impressions

of a Gothic Cathedral. They are high and reach for the sky infinite arrows

towers and turrets, visperhof, finials, pointed arches. But more striking

not so much height. how much wealth aspects. opening when

you circle around the Cathedral.

Gothic cathedrals are not only high, but also very long: for example

has a length of 130 meters and the length of the transept is 64 meters, and to

around it is required to pass at least half a kilometer. And with

each point of the Cathedral seen in a new light. Unlike the Romanesque Church with

its clear, easily observable forms. the Gothic Cathedral is vast, often

asymmetric and heterogeneous even in their parts: each of its facades with

your individual portal. Walls are not felt, they would not have. Arch,

galleries, towers, some sites with arcades, huge Windows, further

and further – infinitely complex, delicate open forms. And all this

the inhabited space of the Cathedral both inside and outside is inhabited by a mass of sculptures (

in Chartres Cathedral around ten thousand sculptures). They occupy not only

portals and galleries, but they can also be found on the roof, the eaves, under

the arches of the chapels, spiral staircases, occur in the gutter,on

consoles. In short, the Gothic Cathedral is the world. He really

absorbed world of the medieval city. If even now, in modern

Paris, Notre-Dame Cathedral dominates the city, and before it fades

architecture, Baroque, Empire, classicism, it is possible to imagine how even

more impressive he looked then, in Paris, among the crooked streets and

small courtyards on the banks of the Seine. Then the Cathedral was something greater than

just a place for Church services. Together with the town hall. it was the center of all

public life of the city. If the town hall was the center of business

activities, in the Cathedral, in addition to worship services took place at the theater

view, read University lectures, sometimes Parliament met and

even was smaller trade treaties. Many city councils were so

great that all the population could not fill. Next to the Cathedral. as

a rule, were located the trading rows. The needs of urban life prompted

to convert a closed thick-walled, bonded type Romanesque Cathedral here

in such a space, open to the outside. But for this it was necessary to change

the design itself. And after construction has occurred and the change

architectural style. Turn to the Gothic style began with architecture, and only then

began to spread on sculpture and painting. Architecture invariably

has been the Foundation of medieval synthesis of the arts. If you compare

typical structures of Romanesque and Gothic, I think they

opposite. Some representatives of massiveness, others lightness. But

if you take the structures of the transition period, it is seen that the Gothic takes its

beginning from Romanesque roots. It all began with a simple cell, with the cell

vaulted,traveI. They were square, and it’s put a certain

the limit on the extension of the main nave. The temple is in such a slab not

could be quite spacious on the inside, he remained narrow and dark. The idea

architects is to enhance and facilitate a system of arches. Solid

the costal arches are replaced with floors – the system of bearing arches. All

airiness, all the fabulous Gothic structure is rational

basis: it follows from the timber frame system of construction. Medieval architects with

brilliant intuition applied here is the law of the parallelogram of forces. On the basis of

this wall in the Cathedral is great, and therefore there is no need to do

solid and dull. So appear through galleries, arcades, huge Windows.

Galleries are used for installation of the statues and Windows for monumental

paintings of colored glass. Medieval artists passionately fond of clean,

bright, loud colors. This has had an impact in stained glass and miniatures, in

the coloring of sculptures. These councils are not outside or inside does not seem

overwhelming. They appear rather as the embodiment of an active life

of the medieval city. They are designed for the quantity of people that boiled around

life. Inside the Cathedral is spacious, the transept nearly merges with the longitudinal

space. This eliminates a sharp boundary between the clergy and

visitors. “Sanctuary” ceases to be something inaccessible and

secret. The tombs are placed directly in the temple, and not in a dark underground

the crypt, in the Romanesque churches. The Gothic dramatic, but not dark and not

sad. What was a medieval city? The bulk

the urban population represented the most rebellious, the most free

layers of society. Artisans were no longer someone else’s servants, they

merged into independent unions, shop. In many cities there were

universities. Cathedrals and the town hall was erected by order of the local authority.

Was built and completed they for a long time – decades and even centuries. All

fine decoration of Gothic cathedrals, including statues, reliefs,

the stained glass Windows and the altar painting, all that was conceived as a kind of

encyclopedia of medieval knowledge – of course subordinate to theology. And

each Cathedral can be traced its own theme. For example Paris was dedicated

the mother of God and all that is connected with it; Amiens – expressed idea

messianism: on the facade the figures of the prophets. But these fine

theological encyclopedias. were. in General, such a vague and allegories

so conditional that under their protection they found the place the most

a variety of themes and motifs, including very far from the Church

the concept of the universe. Under the hands of medieval stone-masons stone dead

comes to life and blooms with thousands of flowers. It is difficult to find in history a more

organic form of synthesis of art. emerging on that basis. In

most Gothic cathedrals sculpture decoration prevailed over

painting, except for the stained-glass Windows: it is again determined

the character of the architecture, making the walls delicate and therefore unsuitable for

of frescoes.Gothic painting developed in the form of wall paintings, and

mostly miniatures in manuscripts and paintings in the altars of the flaps.

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