Dolmens – the mysterious appearance of archaeological sites
If you’ve never heard of the word “Dolmen”, then probably you have question: “what is it?”
Dolmens – this is the First wonder of the world – one of the most mysterious types of archaeological monuments. A miracle that is found in many countries of the world. Dolmens have tremendous power, of which there is no explanation.
Dolmens – “stone boxes” – refers to megalithic structures. Megaliths (from Greek Megas – large and lithos – stone), these ancient structures from multi-ton, often carefully crafted stone blocks are well known in the world.
Megalithic monuments of Europe appear at the end of the VI Millennium BC (about 7.5 thousand years ago). Just before they started building in France. Here in the Western Caucasus the first dolmens were erected in the late fourth Millennium BC In numbers, it is about 3400 BC (plus or minus 50-70 years). This date was obtained as the result of the radiocarbon analysis. For almost 2 thousand years on the slopes and saddles of the mountains, in the valleys of the rivers “grew” the amazing tombs, securely guarding the ashes of the ancient inhabitants of these places. How much annually they built dolmens in the Western Caucasus? Scientists say that, actually, is very little.
Neizvestnaya approximately in the first half of the II Millennium BC their construction stopped. But constructions of the bronze age were not forgotten. For a long time they were used for burial and making the feasts of the tribes of later times (the maeotae, Circassians). Now in the Caucasus there are about 3 thousand dolmens. But their real number should be about 3 times larger (i.e. about 10 thousand). The largest dolmen found destroyed in the area of Novosvobodnaya (cell size 5×5 m, height – 3.5 m).
Traditionally they are divided into several types. Classification of dolmens
In the mid-twentieth century to explore the dolmens, a special group of archeologists under the direction of L. I. Lavrov. By 1960, he had drawn up a catalogue is dolmens of the North Caucasus. Lavrov first proposed the classification of dolmens on their structural features. With minor changes it works till today. Scientist dolmens divided into four groups:
Tile. Four vertical plates form a rectangular or square chamber which is closed by a fifth horizontal plate. Often the whole structure is placed on one horizontal plate forming the skeleton of the structure. The most common buildings (about 92%).
Composite. Dolmens partially or completely assembled from separate blocks, sometimes with rather complicated geometrical connection. The form of these dolmens can be round, rectangular or horseshoe-shaped (1.5% total).
Trough. The floor and walls of the dolmen carved from a whole stone. The roof is made of separate plates. Shape – rectangular or square (3.8 per cent) .
Monolithic. The dolmen is fully carved in stone. Processed both internal and external parties. There are a few isolated, very impressive copies (five are known). With few exceptions, all the dolmens have a hole in the front of the plate, which was closed mushroom stopper. Protruding upper and side plates of rectangular dolmens form a portal.
The menhir is a single, vertical standing stone pillars. Cromlechs circles of these stones.
Classic the widely known dolmens near Gelendzhik . It is a well – known tourist attraction. Dolmens are built of carefully hewn slabs with a length of 3.7 metres and a thickness up to half a meter. Only one “roof” weighs 22.5 tons!
First, the dolmens was the family sanctuary and only later became funerary structures. Many scientists believe only the dolmens and burial structures dated to 2-3 century BC
But who were the builders of the dolmens? Why, for what purpose they hewed stone multi-ton plates, moved them over great distances? Is it only for burial? What was the culture of these people who were able to build dolmens in different parts of the world? Looked like their home and where, finally, left the builders?
All these questions have no answers. Scientists are more assumptions than data. Hypothesis
There are several hypotheses, one of them suggested the Sochi scientist V. M. Kondakovym who devoted many years to the study and systematization of dolmens. Kondrakov left layout dolmens on geological map of the area, and found that all dolmens are located above the line of fracture in the earth’s crust. On these lines occurs and builds up a tremendous tension. These places usually seek people with a heightened perception of the world. They call such zones the place the outbound power.
Being close to the dolmen you will feel a surge of strength, peace, the rule of the consciousness, harmony with the environment, the desire to work.
Siberian wise woman Anastasia, which due to the many generations of ancestors “preserved the ability to communicate with the measurement, where thoughts, wisdom” says about the dolmens that these “shrines… are more significant than the pyramids of Egypt and the temples of Jerusalem”.
“Dolmens – not funerary constructions, in which about 10 thousand years ago people left who have not lost the ability to use the wisdom of the Universe. Went to help distant descendants to find their way to this wisdom…”
Many years of effort these people were unclaimed. Subsequent generations did not understand his true purpose of dolmens, did not know about their opportunities. Until the XIX century the local people felt fear when approaching the dolmens. But it wasn’t fear of any unknown, it was a reverent fear.
Celebrate the opening of the dolmens in the Caucasus belongs to P. S. Pallas. In 1794, he drew attention to the dolmens, near the village of Chokrak-Tion on the Taman Peninsula (probably at St-s Fontalovskaya).Later, in 1837, the same dolmens saw Frederic Dubois de Monpere.To.To. Hertz in the mid-nineteenth century tried to find the dolmen group Chokri-tion, but to do it he has already failed – the dolmens were destroyed.
In 1818 a member of the Odessa society of history and antiquities of Tambu de Marigny opened for R. Page a new group of dolmens, consisting of six buildings. Here he heard of the Circassians from the legend that the dolmens built by giants for the dwarfs who are “riding used rabbits.”
Already in the postwar period, when archeologists began to uncover the dolmens in search of confirmation of their hypotheses, the locals had the courage not only to open but also to take away the dolmens – dolmen and some buildings now have the most unsightly.
If someone of the readers will have a desire when you visit the dolmens to get to the memory at least of the cutters of stone dolmen, this is not worth it. Dolmens do not seek revenge, but those particles that are taken, are, unfortunately, a lasting negative consequences.
Dolmens help people look at the world, consciously come to all events around. Dolmens is a repository of ancient knowledge, their purpose is to respond.
The perception of dolmens is different, but they live and speak. They heal and are open to everyone. But a prerequisite is purity of thoughts. Only through awareness and purity of thought will come to you, and knowledge of origins.