Mysteries of history


The stones and arches of Stonehenge indicate the points of sunrise and sunset and the moon as they move in the course of the year . During the transition from winter to summer the Sun rises every day a little further North than the day before, and reaches the northernmost position at the summer solstice; this provision noted the Heel stone, which was set with striking for that time (2000 – 1500 BC) the accuracy of 0.2°. During the transition from summer to winter every day the Sun rises a little further South than the day before, and reaches its southern most position at the winter solstice; this position is marked by arches. The points of sunrise and sunset in the vernal and autumnal equinoxes are also marked. Thus, in total, six positions of the Sun.

Quite similarly and the Moon rises every night in different points of the horizon, but its movement from the extreme Northern to the extreme southern position occurs much faster than the Sun: two weeks, not six months. The motion of the moon are complicated by the fact that her orbitology “shaken.” If it’s not rocking, the full Moon closest to the day of the winter solstice (winter Moon), extending back over the Heel stone every year, and at this time she would occupy the most northerly position on the horizon. Because of the swinging orbit the full Moon in the middle of winter is deflected first to the left of the Heel stone, and then to the right at an angle of about 20°. One full lunar cycle is 18,61 years, and three cycles – almost exactly 56 years. Thus the stone age astronomers were able to select 12 at the extreme positions of the full moon on the horizon (winter, summer and during the periods of the equinoxes): the two extreme positions of the moon at each extreme position of the Sun. In Fig. 1 shows these trends for the latitude of Stonehenge at 51°.

In the UK there are several hundred megalithic monuments and stone-ringed,*construction projects, but so far published only a few schematic plans and among them is the plan of Callanish, shown in Fig. 2 [3]. A monument in Callense is a group of large, standing stones on the Isle of Lewis is the northernmost island of the Outer Hebrides (Scotland). It’s pretty bleak and desolate place about 130 kilometers to the North of the island of Barra. Callanish consists of a ring containing 13 stones, with a single Central stone, alleys and other deliberately installed stones. Somerville suggested that the direction of the alley coincides with the direction at the point of sunrise Chapel, and that the four stones to the East of the alley indicates the point of rising of the Pleiades. However, rising above the horizon at sea level star, even under the most favorable atmospheric conditions, it seems approximately six magnitudes fainter than it actually is, and the Chapel at sunrise is very weak and inconspicuous, and the Pleiades at sunrise, not visible to the naked eye. Somerville, however, believed that one of the directions may be associated with the Moon and thus CALLENISH becomes the first candidate in the list of megalithic structures that could be used for the same purpose as Stonehenge, and wait to research.

The most mysterious aspect of Callanish is its use by the British of the stone age. I suggested that Stonehenge was used to determine the changing seasons and observations of the moon for 18, 61-year cycle for the purpose of making the lunar-solar calendar and predictions of solar and lunar eclipses. Callanish, apparently, was mainly used as a calendar, although it is possible that it could also predict eclipses.

Exploring how CALLENISH could be the computing machine for counting days, we find much in common with Stonehenge. Because Callense ring of stones does not define any solar or lunar directions, I came to the conclusion that it plays the same role as the Aubrey holes and Sarsenova ring at Stonehenge. The ring in Callense consists of 13 stones (12 large and one small). These numbers are the basis of the luni-solar calendar and could be applied to the account “short” years, containing 12 lunar months, and long years containing 13 lunar months. A similar system is still used in the Jewish calendar. All 19 stones of the alley, including the Heel stone (No. 34), form the source system for counting time. Such a calendar, if it really existed in 1500 BC would pre-empt more than 1,000 years all the same calendars. The ancient Greek astronomer Meton attributed, perhaps, without sufficient reason, open in 433 BC, the 19-year cycle of lunar eclipses; however, this discovery began to be applied practically only in 312 BC during the Seleucid dynasty.

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