The oldest ruling dynasty in the history
Japanese legends and in particular according to the epic “Kojiki” Jimmu was the great-grandson of the sun goddess and that’s why it is not only the founder of the Japanese state, and the second after the celestial. With the help of the divine origin of the rulers of ancient Japan was trying to exalt the Royal power and to unite the country. Just as the Japanese Empire claims the title of oldest state on Earth, and of the Imperial house of Japan can rightfully claim the title of oldest in the world. If you believe the legends, the current dynasty has ruled the Country of the rising sun more than 2600 years. Such longevity can only envy. The ruling dynasty of European and other countries are much younger. The oldest in Europe – Danish, for example, traces its origins back to the year 899, i.e. has a little more than 1100 years.
However, the existence of the first 25 emperors Japanese historians have serious doubts. The first Emperor whose existence is well documented, was Keitai (507-531), 26-th. In any case, even the biggest skeptics admit that the Japanese monarchy is not less than one and a half thousand years, which still makes it the oldest on the planet.Its a very beautiful name – Japanese Chrysanthemum throne in the late 19th century, when was adopted imperatorskaya with a carved yellow chrysanthemum flower with 16 petals. Until that time, the list of Japanese emperors consisted of 121 name. Including 8 women. Of the 120 rulers of Japan, only two ruled twice. By a strange coincidence, it was the Empress: Koken ( Shotoku during the second Board) and COGECA-Seimei .
Of course, not all of the emperors from a long list of divine rulers of the Country of the rising sun held the real power. Some could be called absolute rulers, others were puppets in the hands of the shoguns. At first this title was given by the emperors influential princes who led the army to conduct any war or the rebellion of the peasants or impostors. Later the title of shogun received a broader interpretation. The shogun was called the most influential princes of the most powerful births, which was considered to be a kind of first Ministers, custodians of state or heads of the Imperial Chancellery, i.e. were the second persons in Japan. Often they ruled instead of weak emperors. The era of the Shogunate lasted nearly seven centuries and ended in 1867 with the ascension to the throne of the Emperor Meiji . The last shogun was Yosinobu kind of Tokugawa .
The symbol of the state
The last Emperor of old Japan was komei (1846-67). His successor on the throne Meiji became the first Emperor of modern, according to accepted chronology, Japan. He ruled for almost half a century – from 1867 to 1912 and has undertaken significant reforms that have allowed Japan, for many centuries, carried a policy of isolation from the outside world, quickly to be among the world powers. About the significance of the Meiji is the fact that his name, historians have called a period in the history of the country. When the Meiji 1889 the Constitution was adopted, written on the basis of the constitutions of Western countries. She became the first not only in Japan but throughout East Asia. The emergence of a new world power took place at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries and was accompanied by victorious wars: Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese and the annexation of Taiwan and Korea.
The Japanese emperors, unlike the European colleagues never had surnames. They obviously wanted to emphasize the divinity of his origin and of the Board. Although following the adoption in 1947 the new Japanese Constitution the emperors had lost his divinity, the tradition remains. The last divine Emperor was Hirohito . the father of the current “symbol of state and unity of the people”, as he is called the monarch in the Constitution. Hirohito also left a big mark in the history of the country. He ruled for 63 (!) years and was the last ruler of Japan, who had real power. Him together with Japanese people had to endure two wars, the defeat in the Second world war and a difficult period of rebuilding a devastated country.
The 1947 Constitution took from the emperors not only divine origin, but also deprived them of real power. The last seven decades, Japan is about the same Empire as the United Kingdom, where the Royal family plays a ceremonial role.
An oasis of peace and tranquility
The Imperial family for a century and a half lives in the Palace of a Bed, in the heart of the multimillion bustling Tokyo. There, behind a water-filled moats and high stone walls, hides an oasis of peace and tranquillity, where in parks, gardens and groves is home to approximately 70 species of birds.
The Palace is on the site of the medieval Edo castle, regarded as the largest on the planet (one gate in it was 99). Within the Palace walls, towers and gates can still be seen in rare stones that remained from Edo. According to the plan yeasu the shogun Tokugawa . the first ruler who United Japan, Bed was supposed to be the economic and political center of the nation.
The construction of the Palace lasted for more than a century. In 1710 it was the largest of the Islands is a residential complex occupying almost 20 sq km the Royal Palace Bed became much later. After completion in 1868, the last shogun in Bed from Kyoto moved the Emperor Meiji. During the Second world war the Palace Hospital was badly damaged by bombing by American aircraft. In its previous form it was restored to 1968. The Imperial Palace and today is the country’s largest residential complex. One of the workers here more than a thousand people! With Kojo Gien . huge the square before the Palace, offering stunning views of Nijubashi, two beautiful bridge, which you can get to the inner chambers. Nijubashi – the most photographed place in Japan.
Tourists have access to East garden. It is especially beautiful in March and April when cherry blossom and plum. In the Palace itself mere mortals can get only twice a year: on December 23, the birthday of Emperor Akihito . and 2 January, new year Day greetings. Visitors can see the Emperor and family members that have a balcony.
Women out of the game
Now sits on the Chrysanthemum throne Akihito . the fourth Emperor of modern Japan and the 125th according to the account, the eldest son of Hirohito. He succeeded to the throne 7 January 1989 after the death of his father and noted at the beginning of the year 25 th anniversary of the Board. Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko have three children: two sons – crown Prince Naruhito . which is less than two weeks will be 54 years old, and Prince Akishino (Fumihito) and daughter Princess Sayako .
The Emperor is 80 years old. His health leaves much to be desired. In 2012, he underwent heart surgery for 9 years before removed a tumor of the prostate. The health of the Emperor and Empress in shifts 24 hours a day watching four doctors. In the yard there is a closed clinic with 8 offices and 42 doctors and nurses, which each year takes more than 3 million dollars of Japanese taxpayers. It has everything except queues. The record, according to the doctors themselves, were one of 28 patients in one day.
Health Akihito unimportant, but the situation with inheritance in Japan is still unclear. Act of 1947 confirmed the act of 1889, which prohibited the transmission of the throne through the female line. Meanwhile, the crown Prince has only one daughter. All the attempts of his wife, Princess Masako to produce an heir was not successful, resulting in mostly she suffered a major nervous breakdown, which she without much success treats for several years.
In 2005 the group of experts introduced the government’s proposal to abolish the Salic law. In early 2006, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi promised to send the law to Parliament. However, to cancel the old law is not needed. Existed since 2001, the year of the birth of Aiko . daughter of crown Prince, the potential dynastic crisis was resolved by itself. The second son of the Emperor, Prince Akishino . after two daughters in September 2006, finally, a son was born, the first male child in the Imperial family for 40 years. Formally the Prince of Hisahito is now third in the list of candidates for the Chrysanthemum throne after his uncle and father.
For 70 years the position of women in Japanese society has changed considerably. Nevertheless, the government of Japan is in no hurry to abolish the law of male succession to the throne. Shinzo Abe’s first Premiership in 2007, stated that relieves the proposal to change the Imperial house Law, and is unlikely to change anything now. To understand the government is easy. Firstly, the second son of the Emperor has an heir, and secondly, the Prime Minister obviously hopes for longevity as Akihito and Naruhito and wants to shift the abolition of the Salic law on the descendants.