The temple of the gods in Rome
The architecture of the Temple of the gods
What attracts tourists is the Temple of the Gods? Aside from the fact that it exists almost two thousand years, the architecture itself draws the eye. The Pantheon looks pretty mysterious because of the lack of Windows. The only window through which the light gets into the room, is a huge hole in the dome. It’s called “Oculus”, in antiquity it was a symbol of the all-seeing eye. Some researchers suggest that Oculus was designed so that the solar rays entering inside the Pantheon, lit up in a specific order one or the other statue. The statue, of course, depicted the ancient gods – Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and others.
The hole was eventually covered with many legends. One of them says that during the construction of the Temple of the Gods the dome of the whole story. In a ready made building was held the first ceremony. And while it is holding the evil spirits could not stand it, began to rush and broke up, breaking a hole in the top of the dome. However, the legend did not explain why in this case, Oculus has a regular geometrical shape and smooth edges. Anyway, it’s an amazing hole gives the temple a very mysterious look. Light entering through the top of the building, creates amazing light paintings on the walls and ceiling.
A beautiful sight can be seen in the rare snow days, the snow whirls and falls directly within the Pantheon.
The dome of the Pantheon and without hole attracts attention. It is the world of bolshaw this design. It relies directly on the wall, its inner diameter is about 43 meters. The huge dome in the shape of a perfect semi-circle crowned by the Pantheon and gives it unprecedented grandeur.
Another interesting fact that and the rotunda (the building itself, having a cylindrical shape), and the dome is made of reinforced concrete. Only the lower part of the dome to support it installed arches of brick. To make the structure of the rotunda easier, it was divided into eight parts. One of them made an entrance, and the rest are rectangular or semicircular niches. With the same purpose in the construction of each new level and changed the composition of the concrete. If the base of it consists of rather heavy crumb travertine, the upper part was used weightless baby tuff and pumice. The Pantheon rises above the earth at 42 meters, 22 of them occupies the whole dome.
Interesting and interior decoration of the Temple of the Gods . Walls and floors are lined with marble of different colors. The entrance to the temple is done through a huge gate, made of bronze. Their height is about 7 meters. The gate has survived from antiquity. Of course, since not only was restored. But the idea that our ancient ancestors who lived about 2 thousand years ago were able to build them, amazing. Actually, not every building of those times he had chances to save. After all, the shift from paganism in Rome to Christianity. And many religious buildings were destroyed. However, the Pantheon has just turned into a Christian Church, not by making major changes in its architecture.
Enter the temple is usually through the lobby, which goes to the portico with 16 columns. Each column looks very massive. Their main parts are made of red Egyptian granite and bases and capitals from Greek marble. Despite the impressive size of the portico it smooths out like a solid cylinder of the rotunda and no doubt serves as its decoration.
If the outside of the Pantheon is impressive for its size, inside it rather evokes the peace. Monolithic wall, around the perimeter, broken by many niches, which once adorned the majestic statues of the Roman gods. The dome-like Cup, he does not press for its size, but rather resembles the vault of heaven. Through the big hole streaming sunlight and a patch of blue sky of Rome.
The idea of Pantheon is in harmony with the environment. When designing structures it is laid so that the height of the building equal to the diameter of the rotunda. If you mentally complete the dome, to finish it to full Orb, then he touches the ground. Since ancient times, mankind has considered the ball the most harmonious shape in the Universe.
The history of the Pantheon
At the place known to us of the Pantheon before him also stood a pagan temple, but eventually was destroyed. Then, in year 25 BC, General Marcus Agrippa ordered to build a pool for a bath. This building stood for about 100 years, but at the end of the 1st century of our era it was set on fire. And only at the beginning of the 2nd century by Emperor Hadrian it was rebuilt in the Pantheon as we see it now. The building betrayed a sacred significance, calling it the Temple of all gods. The building was built according to plan and under the direction of the architect of Apollodora Damascus. The plan was designated the building as a rotunda and massive dome, and a rectangular portico, supported by 16 columns. It is in this form was created by the Pantheon, and so he stayed still.
In the 7th century, the Temple of the gods became the Christian Church. The Byzantine Emperor Phocas gave it to Pope Boniface IV. In the early 7th century it was named the Church of our lady of Martyrs. Later, in the 14-16 century, the Pantheon has survived many battles as it was used as a defensive structure. But the dark ages came the Renaissance, and the Temple of the gods went by his name. However there was restoration of the building under the guidance of the great architect Raphael. The architect and the painter was buried in one of the niches of the Pantheon at his own request. Also in the Church are the graves of artists Dzukkari and Karachi and some members of Royal families.
Of course, the Pantheon has undergone many changes over time . So, until the 17th century, its ceiling was decorated with bronze. But the metal was removed and melted down to enhance or decorate other buildings. At the same time to the rotunda were built several towers, but in the 19th century they were considered unnecessary and removed. With the arrival in Rome of Christianity were destroyed the statues of pagan gods, and their niches for a long time empty. Now there are paintings and culture of the 17th and 18th centuries, and the Pantheon used to be a temple-Museum. On ordinary days there are a lot of tourists. And public holidays services are held here.